Иностранная валюта (Forex) Определение

The movements of the foreign currency markets and the transactions that take place on them are highly fascinating. To begin with, the markets are very unpredictable and sometimes dangerous. 

They do, however, create some intriguing risk-return contradictions as well. Ironically, merchants in the markets appear to be enthusiastic about these characteristics.

What is Foreign Exchange Market? (Forex)

The exchanging of one currency for the other is referred to as foreign exchange (forex or FX). One can, for example, exchange the United States dollar for the euro. 

It is a decentralized or over the market in which all currency exchange transactions occur, and it is where all currency exchange transactions occur. 

According to the Bank of International Settlements’ Triennial Central Bank Survey, the average daily volume of transactions on the foreign exchange market is $5.1 trillion (2016).

The foreign exchange market is the largest and most liquid market globally, with trillions of dollars circulating in the economy every day on its trading floor. 

Transactions in foreign currencies can be made on the exchange market, often known as the forex market, which is open 24 hours a day.

Many of the world’s major financial centers are located in or near crucial trading locations for the forex market. These include major financial centers such as New York, Frankfurt, London, Hong Kong, Tokyo, and Sydney. 

Although forex markets are decentralized in nature, the exchange rates available in the market are all the same among its users. This is because arbitrage opportunities can occur if the rates given in the market differ.

There is no single area where everything is. Instead, it is an electronic network of banks, brokers, financial institutions, and individual traders that makes up the FX market (mostly trading through brokers or banks).

Forex Terms to Know

A currency pair is a pair of currencies that are traded against each other. All forex trades include the purchase and sale of a currency pair. In addition to the major transactions, there are a number of less popular ones (like exotics, which are currencies of developing countries).

Pip. A pip, which is an abbreviation for percentage in points, refers to the smallest potential price fluctuation between two currencies. Given that foreign exchange rates are quoted out to at least 4 decimal places, one pip is equal to 0.0001.

The spread between bid and ask prices. Exchange rates, like those of other assets (such as stocks), are decided by the greatest amount that buyers are ready to pay for a currency (the bid) and the bare minimum that sellers are willing to accept in exchange for a currency (the ask) (the ask). The bid-ask spread is the difference between these two numbers, as well as the value at which trades will finally be conducted, and it is calculated as follows:

Lot. A lot, also known as a standardized unit of currency, is the unit of currency used in forex trading. However, there are also micro (1,000 units) and mini (10,000 units) lots exchange-traded, in addition to the standard lot size of 100,000 units of currency.

Leverage. Because of the enormous lot sizes, some dealers may be hesitant to risk such a significant sum of money in order to execute a transaction. Leverage, which is another name for borrowing money, enables traders to engage in the forex market without having to invest the large sums of money that would otherwise be necessary.

Margin. Trading using leverage, on the other hand, is not free. Traders must make an initial investment, which is referred to as margin before they can begin trading.

What is base and quote currency?

Base currency refers to the first of two currencies mentioned in a forex pair, whereas the quote currency refers to the second currency included in a forex pair. 

For the purposes of this article, forex trading always entails selling one currency in order to purchase another, which is why it is quoted in pairs. The price of a forex pair is defined as how much one unit of the base value is worth in one branch of the quote currency.

Each money in the pair is represented by a three-character code, which is typically comprised of two characters that represent the region and one letter that represents the currency. 

For example, the GBP/USD currency pair entails purchasing the Great British pound while simultaneously selling the United States dollar.

If the value of the pound relative to the dollar grows, a single pound will be valued more dollars, and the value of the pair will climb as a result. If it falls, the price of the pair will fall as well. 

As a result, if you believe that the base currency in a pairing is likely to strengthen versus the quote currency, you should consider purchasing the pair (going long). If you believe it will weaken further, you can sell the pair of currencies (going short).

What factors affect foreign exchange rates?

Many aspects have the ability to have an impact on the market forces that drive foreign exchange rates. 

Different political, economic, and even psychological conditions are among the issues to take into consideration. 

Inflation, trade balances, and the forecast for economic growth are among the financial elements that influence a government’s monetary policy.

Occasions such as political uncertainty and political conflicts can have a detrimental impact on the strength of a currency’s value. These conditions have a considerable effect on the FX rate. 

How does foreign exchange trading work?

Trade-in foreign exchange can be done in a variety of methods. Still, they really work in the same way: by concurrently purchasing one currency and selling another. 

Traditionally, most forex transactions were completed through a forex broker. However, with the rise of internet trading, you can now take advantage of price swings in the foreign exchange market through derivatives such as CFD trading.

CFDs are leveraged instruments, which means you can open a trade for a portion of the trade’s overall value by using a small amount of money. 

In contrast to non-leveraged products, you do not acquire ownership of the asset but rather take a stance on whether you believe the market will appreciate or depreciate.

Even though leveraged products can amplify your profits, they can also boost your losses if the market moves in your favor.

What makes the forex market move?

The forex market consists of assets from all over the globe, which makes forecasting exchange rates challenging due to the large number of factors that might influence price changes. 

However, forex, like most financial markets, is primarily driven by the forces of supply and demand, and it is critical to have a grasp of the factors that influence price swings in this market.

Central banks 

These are financial institutions that are regulated by the government. The supply of a currency is held by central banks, which have the authority to declare policies that will have a significant impact on the value of their currency. Quantitative easing, for example, entails infusing more money into an economy, which might result in a decrease in the value of the economy’s currency.

News descriptions

Commercial banks and other investments are more likely to put their money into economies with a promising future. Consequently, if positive news about a particular location hits the markets, it will boost investment in that region and enhance demand for the local currency in that region.

The discrepancy between supply and demand for the currency will lead its price to rise unless there is a simultaneous increase in the collection of the coin. Likewise, a piece of lousy sentiment might lead investment to fall, resulting in a decrease in the value of a currency. In order to account for this, currencies tend to mirror the stated economic health of the area that they are assigned to.

Sentiment in the market

Market mood, which is frequently triggered by breaking news, can also have a significant impact on the direction of currency values. Suppose traders consider that a currency is moving in a particular way. In that case, they will trade in that direction and may persuade others to do the same, raising or lowering demand as a result of their actions.

Statistical information on the economy

Economic-related data is critical to the movement of currency prices for two reasons. It provides insight into how a country’s economy is going and insight into what the country’s central bank might be doing next.

If inflation in the eurozone has increased over the 2 percent target level set by the European Central Bank (ECB), this would be considered a positive development. 

The European Central Bank’s primary policy tool for combating rising inflation is rising European interest rates. Thus, traders may begin buying the euro in anticipation of interest rates increasing. With more traders clamoring for euros, the euro’s value against the dollar may climb.

Ratings of creditworthiness

Investors will want to maximize the profit they can acquire from a market while also minimizing the danger of losing their investment. They may therefore use credit ratings in addition to interest rates and economic data when determining where to make their investment.

The credit rating of a country is an independent evaluation of the country’s possibility of repaying its debts. A country with a high credit rating is considered to be a more secure place to invest than a country with a poor credit rating. The importance of this is frequently brought into sharp relief when credit ratings are improved or reduced. The value of a country’s currency can rise in value if its credit rating is increased, and the reverse is true as well.

How does the forex exchange market differ?

There are some significant distinctions between the foreign exchange market and other financial markets. There are fewer rules, which means investors are not subject to the same standards or regulations as they would be if they were investing in the futures, stocks, or options markets. 

Because of this, there are no clearing bodies or centralized organizations that regulate the currency market.

Second, because trades are not conducted on a typical exchange, you will not be subjected to the exact costs and commissions as you would be on a traditional business. 

Following that, there is no time limit on when you can and cannot deal. You can trade at any time of day or night because the market is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Finally, because it is such a liquid market, you have the freedom to enter and exit anytime you want. You can purchase as much currency as you can manage.

Spot Market

In most cases, the spot rate is two business days; however, there are certain exceptions, such as the US dollar vs. the Canadian dollar, which settles on the following business day. The remaining pairs will be decided in two business days. 

Spot transactions might take as long as six days to settle during times that include numerous holidays, such as Christmas or Easter. Price is determined on the purchase date, but money is traded on the value date, which is when a transaction is completed.

The United States dollar is the most frequently traded currency in the world. The most frequently traded currency pairs include the euro vs the US dollar, British pound, Japanese yen, and Australian dollar, among others. 

Crosses are trading pairs that do not include the dollar as one of the currency pairs. The euro is most often changed against the pound and the yen, among other currencies.

The spot rate can be highly turbulent at times. Movement in the brief term is characterized by technical trading, which is concerned with the speed and direction of movement of the market. 

Chartists are individuals who concentrate their efforts on technical analysis. Long-term currency movements are influenced by essential variables such as interest rate differentials and economic growth rates.

The Forward Market 

It is a type of futures market that trades in the future. A forward deal is any transaction that settles at a time that is more distant in the future than the current time. 

With the future price, you can get a mix of the minus forward points or spot rate plus, which are a representation of the interest rate difference between the two currencies. 

Most have a maturity date of less than a year in the future. However, it is conceivable for them to be older. In the same way that a spot contract is priced on the transaction day, a forward contract is priced on the maturity period.

The Future Market

It is a type of financial market that trades in the future. Futures transactions are similar to forwarding transactions in that they settle later than spot transactions; however, futures transactions are for standard size and payment date and are traded on a commodities exchange. The counterparty is represented by the deal.

The majority of traders who speculate on forex prices do not intend to take possession of the currency in question; instead, they make predictions about future exchange rates in order to profit from price changes in the market.

Is the Forex market huge?

The foreign exchange market is extraordinarily liquid, and the trading activity volumes of the stock and bond markets are dwarfed by a factor of many orders of magnitude. 

Trade-in forex markets averaged $6.6 trillion per day in 2019, according to the most recent triennial survey undertaken by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). 

On the other hand, the total combined value of the equities markets in the United States on October 7, 2021, was around $501 billion. 

Difference of Forex to Other Markets

There are some significant distinctions between the foreign exchange market and other financial markets. 

It is important to note that because there are no clearing houses or central bodies to oversee the forex market, investors are not subject to the same stringent rules or regulations as those in the stock, commodities, or options markets. 

First and foremost, there aren’t any fees or charges to pay like there are in other markets with traditional exchanges. 

Except for the weekend, there is no cutoff period for trading, which means that one can deal at any time of day. Finally, its liquidity contributes to the ease with which it can be traded.

Possible dangers to Forex Trading

Since forex trading involves the use of leverage and the usage of margin by traders, there are added risks associated with forex trading compared to other types of commodities. 

Currency prices are continually fluctuating, but only by extremely little amounts, which implies that traders must execute massive deals (using leverage) in order to make money in the forex market.

If a trader wins a bet, this type of leverage is hugely beneficial because it increases the amount of money that can be made. However, it has the potential to multiply losses, sometimes exceeding the amount borrowed in the first place. 

Furthermore, if the value of a currency falls too far, leverage users expose themselves to the possibility of margin calls. 

This could force them to sell the stocks they purchased with borrowed cash at a significant loss. Aside from the possibility of losses, transaction charges can build up and potentially eat away at what was once a profitable trade.

Perhaps it’s a positive thing, therefore, that forex trading isn’t as popular among ordinary investors as it is among institutions. 

According to data from DailyForex, retail trading (also known as trading by non-professionals) amounts for only 5.5 percent of the total worldwide market, and some of the largest online brokers do not even offer forex trading. 

Moreover, of the few retail traders who participate in forex trading, the majority of them struggle to make a profit from the market. According to the research conducted by CompareForexBrokers, on average, 71 percent of retail foreign exchange traders lost money. 

As a result, forex trading is frequently considered a method best left to the specialists.

Why Average Users Like Forex

While the investor should generally avoid dabbling in the currency market, the events that take place there have an impact on all of us. 

The real-time activity on the spot market will have an impact on the price we pay for exports as well as the amount it will cost us to travel overseas in the near future.

As an example, if the value of the currency rises (USD) concerning the euro, it will be less expensive to travel overseas (your dollars will be able to purchase more euros) and to purchase imported items. 

The opposite is also true: when the dollar falls in value, it becomes more expensive to travel abroad and import things (but companies that export goods abroad will benefit).

The forex market sets the exchange rates, so it’s essential to keep a watch on them if you’re going to make a large purchase of an imported goods.

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